The National Electrical Code NEC includes many specific requirements for installation of outdoor circuits and equipment. With outdoor wiring, the primary safety concerns involve shielding against moisture and corrosion, preventing physical damage, and managing issues related to underground burial.
National Electrical Code (NEC) Rules for Outdoor Wiring
With most residential outdoor wiring projectsthe relevant code requirements pertain to installing outdoor receptacles and lighting fixtures, and to running wiring above and below ground. Where the official Code requirements call for "listed" equipment, this means that the products used must be authorized for the application by an approved testing agency, such as UL formerly Underwriters Laboratories.
Many of the rules applying to outdoor receptacle outlets are aimed at reducing the likelihood of shock, which is a notable risk anytime a user is in direct contact with the earth. The principle rules for outdoor receptacles include:. The rules for outdoor lighting are principally about using fixtures that are rated for use in damp or wet locations:.
Even though standard NM cable has a vinyl outer jacket and waterproof insulation around the individual conducting wires, it is not intended for use in outdoor locations. Instead, cables must be approved for outdoor use. And when using conduit, there are additional rules that must be followed. The applicable rules for outdoor cables and conduits include:. This is not an NEC requirement, but it could save your life, not to mention prevent considerable trouble with your service providers.
Callthe national "Call Before You Dig" hotline, at least three days before you plan to dig anywhere on your property. The hotline personnel will notify all utility providers in your area.Megaboom 3 bluetooth button
Those with lines running through your property will send out a representative to mark their line s on the ground. You can use power equipment to dig no closer than 24 inches to marked lines, but you must use a hand shovel when digging within 24 inches of either side of a marked line. GFCI ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection is required for all outdoor receptacles. Specific exceptions may be made for snow-melting or deicing equipment, where the equipment is powered by an inaccessible outlet.
Homes must have at least one outdoor receptacle at the front and rear of the house. As a general recommendation, houses also should have a receptacle at each side of a deck or balcony, accessible from the ground.
Receptacles in damp locations under protective covers, such as a porch roof must be weather-resistant and have a weatherproof weathertight cover. Receptacles in wet locations exposed to weather must be weather-resistant and have a weatherproof "in-use" cover.
This cover provides sealed weather protection even when cords are plugged into the receptacle. A permanent swimming pool must have access to an electrical receptacle that is no closer than 6 feet and no further than 20 feet from the closest edge of the pool.Garden sheds protect valuable gardening equipment like shovels, rakes and hedge trimmers.
Garden tools that are kept out of the weather will last longer and perform better when you need them. A large enough garden shed can also store lawn mowers, string trimmers, chainsaws and other power equipment. In addition to protecting your gardening gear, a garden shed can also make your property look tidier because everything is enclosed in its place, rather than leaning in a corner or cluttering your garage.
You can store many items in a deck box or a very small, closet-sized garden shed.Parallax widget muse
There are storage benches that blend with your outdoor decor, or storage boxes designed to also function as a small table. These clever designs have the advantage of storing your gear and fitting in a limited space.
Should I use Plastic or Metal Electrical Boxes
Measure your garden or deck space, your tools and then consider the measurements of the sheds or storage boxes in your range. Choose a shed that will accommodate your largest tools or equipment and still fit in the area you plan to locate it.
A bit of extra space will almost always be used when it comes to storing your garden tools. Here at Walmart.Gamejolt android horror games
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D Brown Deck Box. Free Store Pickup Today. Arrow Newburgh 5. Suncast Cascade 8. Arrow Suncast 6 H x 4. Build-Well 4.But for many DIYers, the wide variety of boxes is bewildering. There are plastic and metal boxes; "new work" and "old work" boxes; round, square, and octagonal boxes; and boxes with load ratings for ceiling fans and heavy light fixtures. All of the most commonly used boxes for home wiring projects are available at home centers and large hardware stores, and it's important to know the differences in order to buy the correct boxes.
There are a number of options to consider: materials, shape, and size. Metal boxes are generally made of steel, while plastic boxes are either PVC or fiberglass. Weatherpoof metal boxes for outdoor use are generally made of aluminum. If you are using metal conduit to run wiring to the electrical box, then a metal box is required—both to anchor the conduit and because the conduit and metal box system itself may be used to ground the system.Ray apollo wrestling
If you are using non-metallic cable, such as Type NM-B non-metallic sheathed cablethen you can use either plastic boxes or metal boxesas long as the cable is secured to the box with an appropriate cable clamp. Modern wiring systems with NM-B cable usually include a ground wire inside the cable, so the box is not part of the grounding system however, metal boxes must be connected to the system ground, usually with a short length of wire called a pigtail.
Single light fixture switches and outlet receptacles typically fit into standard rectangular boxes, also known as "single-gang" or "one-gang" boxes. Some forms are "gangable"—with detachable sides that can be removed so the boxes can be linked together to form larger boxes for holding two, three, or more devices side-by-side. Standard rectangular boxes come in various types of "new work" and "old work" designs.
Some types have built-in cable clamps for securing NM cables. Like standard rectangular boxes, these are used to hold household switches and electrical outlets, but they are oversized so that two, three, or four devices can be mounted side-by-side. Like other boxes, these come in a variety of "new work" and "old work" designs, some with built-in cable clamps.
The same effect can be created by using standard rectangular boxes with a "gangable" design that allows the sides to be removed so the boxes can be joined together to form larger boxes.
They are used most commonly for ceiling- or wall-mounted light fixtures that weigh no more than 50 pounds. Some types of specially rated metal pan boxes may be used for mounting ceiling fans, but not all pan boxes may be used for this purpose. It's important that the fixture wires can be properly connected and fitted within the round pan box.
These are shallow electrical boxes with only enough space for fitting two or three electrical connections.The NEC permits use of plastic boxes with non-metallic cable only. This includes Romex or NM wiring. You should not use metal-sheathed or "BX" wiring with plastic electrical boxes. The reasoning is simple -- with armored cable, the box itself provides ground conductor continuity.
Weatherproof Covers & Boxes
Plastic boxes don't use metal cable clamps and do not provide the required grounding path. The advantage of plastic boxes is comparatively minor even for non-metallic sheathed cable -- you can avoid making one ground connection and they sometimes cost a little less.
On the other hand, plastic boxes are more vulnerable to impacts.Electrical Help : How to Install a Power Receptacle Outside
For exposed or shop wiring, metal boxes are probably better. Metal receptacle covers must be grounded, even on plastic boxes. This may be achieved by use of a switch with ground connection.
Metal electrical boxes are primarily used with metal-sheathed or "BX" wiring. However, they can also be used with Romex or NM wiring if desired. Most new residential electrical systems use Romex and plastic boxes. Most do-it-yourselfers will find this combination easier to work with as well. Plastic boxes are lighter, some already have nails attached, and holes are easier to knock out than metal boxes.
Back Wiring a House.Outlets, light switches, ceiling lights, ceiling fans, and transition wires are just a few of the items that are installed in electrical boxes. While there is an abundance of sizes, shapes, and attachment variations with electrical boxes, all of them fall into two categories: plastic boxes or metal boxes. In many cases, your choice of a metal or plastic electrical box is one of personal preference, economy, and ease.
In a few cases, though, the choice is clear-cut and obvious, mainly with respect to grounding. Most do-it-yourselfers prefer plastic electrical boxes, while electricians use both metal and plastic boxes.
Metal electrical boxes were used long before plastic PVC electrical boxes were introduced to the market. Ultra-strong, fireproof, and incapable of being melted, metal boxes offer the greatest level of security for all electrical wiring applications. When stressed, plastic boxes can twist.
With enough stress, plastic boxes will distend. Even hammering the plastic box to the stud the wrong way can twist the box out of shape. Metal electrical boxes have no such problem: It is virtually impossible to bend or crush these boxes. For do-it-yourselfers, metal electrical boxes can be slightly more difficult to work with.
Metal boxes have rear and side knock-outs that require supplementary clamps. In addition, metal boxes' sharp edges can take a toll on hands. For this reason, it is recommended that you wear gloves when working with metal boxes. Use a metal electrical box when metal-sheathed cable also called armored BX cable or metal conduit is running in or out of the box. Also, use metal boxes with interior exposed applications.
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Typically, electrical boxes are recessed in walls. But areas such as unfinished basements and mudrooms may not have a complete wall system that allows for the box to be enclosed by drywall. A typical installation in these cases involves attaching the exposed box directly to a masonry wall.
Because the wires are also exposed, the metal conduit is required. Contact between an attached device such as a light switch or outlet and the metal box completes the grounding contact. Even if the device does not complete the ground, Romex or NM wiring can always be used with metal electrical boxes by attaching the bare or green grounding wire to the box by a screw.
Metal boxes are strong, plus they provide a strong attachment to the stud. When attachment to the stud is a major worry, choose a metal box. Metal boxes mean you can drive strong screws into the studs, ensuring a maximum amount of holding power.
Metal boxes will not warp. With their high-stress material, metal boxes are often stronger than the work material built around them. Other boxes require you to purchase separate clamps, driving up the total cost of the box. Generally, do-it-yourself electricians may find metal boxes slightly more cumbersome to work with than plastic boxes. Plastic made off polyvinyl chloride, or PVC is fast becoming the standard material for electrical boxes, especially for do-it-yourself work.
Plastic boxes are lightweight, cheap, and simple to work with. Holes are easy to punch out in the back or sides. PVC can melt when subjected to sufficiently high temperatures but it does not conduct electricity. Many plastic boxes come with built-in clamps for the wires, further lowering overall project cost. Electrical code does not require that you use NM cable with plastic boxes.
The overriding concern is that the application should be grounded. Metal-sheathed wiring depends on bonding with the metal electrical box for grounding. Using metal-sheathed wiring with plastic electrical boxes, without taking other grounding measures, severs that ground and is highly dangerous.We never considered the impact of these actions on the animals involved. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question: Why should animals have rights. MoreProgramsPETA Primepeta2PETA KidsTeachKindSupport PETABecome a MemberMake a Monthly GiftMake a Memorial GiftPlanned GivingVanguard SocietyMembership ServicesGift MembershipsMore WaysReport Cruelty to Animals PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Animals are not oursto eat, wear, experiment on, use for entertainment, or abuse in any other way.
Chemical Engineering Research and DesignVolume 83, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 88-92Effect of Packing Geometrical Details: Influence of Free Tips on Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficients of Intalox SaddlesAuthor links open overlay panelT. The data are compared with those for the original Norton Intalox metal saddles, which differ from the new ones in the number of free tips (spikes) created by cutting the middle strips in the packing elements.
The free tips increase the number of jumping droplets in the packing and thus may improve the mass transfer efficiency. The results provide information on how packing geometrical details can influence transport properties in absorption or distillation packed columns.
Chemical Engineering Research and DesignVolume 83, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 88-92Author links open overlay panelT. I hope all of you are doing great. If you have been following my blog for a while and keeping a lookout at the comments then you might know a bit about me. I recently wrote a review paper regarding the use of Machine Learning in Remote Sensing. I thought that some of you might find it interesting and insightful.
It is not strictly a Python focused research paper but is interesting nonetheless. I am back with a new article. This time I will tackle a problem which seems easy enough at first but will surprize some of you. In just a short span of 2 years I can not thank Allah enough for the level of success the book has achieved.
I was recently contacted by folks from AppDynamics (a part of CISCO). They shared an infographic with me which listed 13 Python libraries.
These libraries were categorized in sections. I loved going through that infographic. I hope you guys will enjoy it too. I will be starting my bachelors at Colgate University in Hamilton, US from this month. I have been pretty busy lately with making all of the required arrangements.
However, during this time I got a chance to attend the first ever Python meetup in Lahore, Pakistan. It was hosted on July 22nd. However, on the past weekend I managed to get a hold of my laptop and crank out something useful.
It was a Facebook messenger bot which servers you fresh memes, motivational posts, jokes and shower thoughts. It was the first time I had delved into bot creation.
In this post I will teach you most of the stuff you need to know in order to get your bot off the ground. The Python yield keyword explained Storing and Loading Data with JSON Python socket network programming 10 python blogs worth following How I got into programming 10 inspirations for your next python project Follow us on facebook Follow us on facebook Follow Blog via Email Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
But thanks to creatives developing free open source software, like Blender, everyone can get involved. In this article, we've rounded up the best step-by-step Blender tutorials from around the web. Improve your modelling, animating, rendering and compositing skills as you follow the projects and pick up tips from leading 3D designers in these video and text tutorials.
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